The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Braz J Infect Dis 2017;21:562-6 - Vol. 21 Num.5 DOI: 10.1016/j.bjid.2017.05.005
Brief communication
Tuberculosis incidence among people living with HIV/AIDS with virological failure of antiretroviral therapy in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
Monaliza Cardozo Rebouçasa,, , Márcio Oliveira da Silvaa, Tatiana Haguiharaa, Carlos Britesb, Eduardo Martins Nettob
a Secretaria de Saúde do Estado da Bahia (SESAB), Centro Especializado em Diagnóstico, Assistência e Pesquisa (CEDAP), Salvador, BA, Brazil
b Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Programa de Pós-graduação em Medicina e Saúde (PPGMS), Salvador, BA, Brazil
Received 15 March 2017, Accepted 14 May 2017
Abstract

Antiretroviral therapy for HIV has led to increased survival of HIV-infected patients. However, tuberculosis remains the leading opportunistic infection and cause of death among people living with HIV/AIDS. Tuberculosis has been shown to be a good predictor of virological failure in this group. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of tuberculosis and its consequences among individuals diagnosed with virological failure of HIV. This was a retrospective cohort study involving people living with HIV/AIDS being followed-up in an AIDS reference center in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Individuals older than 18 years with HIV infection on antiretroviral therapy for at least six months, diagnosed with virological failure (HIV-RNA greater than or equal to 1000copies/mL), from January to December 2013 were included. Tuberculosis was diagnosed according to the criteria of the Brazilian Society of Pneumology. Fourteen out of 165 (8.5%) patients developed tuberculosis within two years of follow-up (incidence density=4.1 patient-years). Death was directly related to tuberculosis in 6/14 (42.9%). A high incidence and tuberculosis-related mortality was observed among patients with virological failure. Diagnosis of and prophylaxis for tuberculosis in high-incidence countries such as Brazil is critical to decrease morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV/AIDS.

Keywords
Tuberculosis, Virological failure, HIV infection
Braz J Infect Dis 2017;21:562-6 - Vol. 21 Num.5 DOI: 10.1016/j.bjid.2017.05.005