The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Braz J Infect Dis 2017;21:396-401 - Vol. 21 Num.4 DOI: 10.1016/j.bjid.2017.03.013
Original article
Transmitted drug resistance in patients with acute/recent HIV infection in Brazil
Ana Cristina G. Ferreiraa, Lara E. Coelhoa, Eduarda Grinsztejna, Carlos S. de Jesusb, Monick L. Guimarãesb, Valdiléa G. Velosoa, Beatriz Grinsztejna, Sandra W. Cardosoa,,
a Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
b Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
Received 10 October 2016, Accepted 28 March 2017

The widespread use of antiretroviral therapy increased the transmission of antiretroviral resistant HIV strains. Antiretroviral therapy initiation during acute/recent HIV infection limits HIV reservoirs and improves immune response in HIV infected individuals. Transmitted drug resistance may jeopardize the early goals of early antiretroviral treatment among acute/recent HIV infected patients.


Patients with acute/recent HIV infection who underwent resistance test before antiretroviral treatment initiation were included in this analysis. HIV-1 sequences were obtained using an in house protease/reverse transcriptase genotyping assay. Transmitted drug resistance was identified according to the Stanford HIV Database for Transmitted Drug Resistance Mutations, based on WHO 2009 surveillance list, and HIV-1 subtyping according to Rega HIV-1 subtyping tool. Comparison between patients with and without transmitted drug resistance was made using Kruskal–Wallis and Chi-square tests.


Forty-three patients were included, 13 with acute HIV infection and 30 with recent HIV infection. The overall transmitted drug resistance prevalence was 16.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.1–30.0%). The highest prevalence of resistance (11.6%, 95% CI: 8.1–24.5) was against non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and K103N was the most frequently identified mutation.


The high prevalence of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors resistance indicates that efavirenz-based regimen without prior resistance testing is not ideal for acutely/recently HIV-infected individuals in our setting. In this context, the recent proposal of including integrase inhibitors as a first line regimen in Brazil could be an advantage for the treatment of newly HIV infected individuals. However, it also poses a new challenge, since integrase resistance test is not routinely performed for antiretroviral naive individuals. Further studies on transmitted drug resistance among acutely/recently HIV-infected are needed to inform the predictors of transmitted resistance and the antiretroviral therapy outcomes among these population.

HIV, Infection, Transmission, Primary resistance, Antiretroviral therapy
Braz J Infect Dis 2017;21:396-401 - Vol. 21 Num.4 DOI: 10.1016/j.bjid.2017.03.013