The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Braz J Infect Dis 2017;21:369-75 - Vol. 21 Num.4 DOI: 10.1016/j.bjid.2017.03.017
Original article
Relationship between climatic factors and air quality with tuberculosis in the Federal District, Brazil, 2003–2012
Fernanda Monteiro de Castro Fernandesa,, , Eder de Souza Martinsb, Daniella Melo Arnaud Sampaio Pedrosaa, Maria do Socorro Nantua Evangelistaa
a Universidade de Brasília (UNB), Programa de Pós-graduação em Enfermagem, Brasília, DF, Brazil
b Universidade de Brasília (UNB), Programa de Pós-graduação em Geografia, Brasília, DF, Brazil
Received 03 July 2016, Accepted 27 March 2017
Abstract
Introduction

Despite the high rate of tuberculosis indicators in Brazil, the Federal District shows a low prevalence of the disease.

Objective

To analyze the relationship between climatic factors and air quality with tuberculosis in the Brazilian Federal District.

Methodology

This was an ecological and descriptive study comparing 3927 new cases of Tuberculosis registered at the Federal District Tuberculosis Control Program with data from the National Institute of Meteorology, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, Brazilian Agricultural Research Institute, Brasilia Environmental Institute, and the Federal District Planning Company.

Results

From 2003 to 2012, there has been a higher incidence of Tuberculosis (27.0%) in male patients in the winter (27.2%). Patients under 15 years of age (28.6%) and older than 64 years (27.1%) were more affected in the fall. For youth and adults (15–64 years), the highest number of cases was reported during winter (44.3%). The disease was prevalent with ultraviolet radiation over 17MJ/m2 (67.8%; p=<0.001); relative humidity between 31.0% and 69.0% (95.8% of cases; p=<0.00); 12h of daily sunlight or more (40.6%; p=0.001); and temperatures between 20°C and 23°C (72.4%; p=<0.001). In the city of Taguatinga and surrounding area, pollution levels dropped to 15.2% between 2003 and 2012. Smoke levels decreased to 31.9%. In the Sobradinho region, particulate matter dropped to 13.1% and smoke to 19.3%, coinciding with the reduction of Tuberculosis incidence rates during the same period.

Conclusion

The results should guide surveillance actions for Tuberculosis control and elimination and indicate the need to expand observation time to new climate indicators and air quality.

Keywords
Tuberculosis, Seasonality, Air pollution
Braz J Infect Dis 2017;21:369-75 - Vol. 21 Num.4 DOI: 10.1016/j.bjid.2017.03.017