The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Braz J Infect Dis 2017;21:402-7 - Vol. 21 Num.4 DOI: 10.1016/j.bjid.2017.03.014
Original article
Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhea and associated factors among women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Brazil: a multicenter study
Angelica E. Mirandaa,, , Mariangela F. Silveirab, Ana Gabriela Travassosc, Teresinha Tenóriod, Isabel Cristina Chulvis do Vale, Leonor de Lannoyf, Hortensio Simões de Mattos Juniorg, Newton Sergio de Carvalhoh
a Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES, Brazil
b Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil
c Universidade Estadual da Bahia, Salvador, BA, Brazil
d Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil
e Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brazil
f Unidade de Saúde Mista da Asa Sul, Brasília, DF, Brazil
g Laboratório São Marcos, Vila Velha, ES, Brazil
h Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil
Received 17 October 2016, Accepted 17 March 2017

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) cause infections in the female genital tract, increasing susceptibility to and infectiousness of HIV. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence and associated factors of CT and GC infection among HIV-infected women in Brazil.


Cross-sectional study conducted from March to December 2015, including HIV-infected women attending referral centers in nine states of Brazil, aged 18–49 years, nonpregnant. An interview was conducted including socio-demographic, epidemiological and clinical characteristics. After the interview, gynecological examination was conducted to collect cervical cytology and vaginal secretion to C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae tests through molecular biology.


A total of 802 (89.1%) women participated. The prevalence of CT was 2.1% (17/802) and CG was 0.9% (7/802). The prevalence of a positive test for both CT and/or GC was 2.7%. The factors associated with positive CT/GC test in the multivariate logistic regression analysis were abnormal Papanicolau smear (OR 4.1; 95% CI: 1.54–11.09) and the presence of abnormal cervical discharge (OR 2.6; 95% CI: 1.02–6.71). Among 377 women who reported previous STI 245 (65.0%) reported using condom more frequently after being diagnosed. 62 (16.4%) discovered the STI after the partner told he was infected; 157 (41.6%) had STI symptoms and looked for care, and 158 (41.9%) discovered it in a routine consultation for another reason.


The control of STI represents a unique opportunity to improve reproductive health of women living with HIV. STI diagnosis can change their behavior and reduce the sexual transmission of HIV and bacterial STI.

Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, HIV, Women, Brazil
Braz J Infect Dis 2017;21:402-7 - Vol. 21 Num.4 DOI: 10.1016/j.bjid.2017.03.014