The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Braz J Infect Dis 2017;21:530-4 - Vol. 21 Num.5 DOI: 10.1016/j.bjid.2017.05.007
Original article
Increasing rates of Clostridium difficile infection in Mexican hospitals
Laura Palau Dávilaa, Elvira Garza-Gonzálezb, Patricia Rodríguez-Zuluetac, Rayo Morfín-Oterod, Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriegad, Diana Vilar-Comptee, Juan C. Rodríguez-Aldamac, Adrián Camacho-Ortiza,,
a Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Hospital Universitario Dr. José Eleuterio González, Hospital de Epidemología, Monterrey, Mexico
b Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Hospital Universitario Dr. José Eleuterio González, Departamento of Gastroenterología, Monterrey, Mexico
c Hospital General Manuel Gea González, Departamento de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Mexico City, Mexico
d Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Hospital Civil de Guadalajara Fray Antonio Alcalde, Guadalajara, Mexico
e Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departamento de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Mexico City, Mexico
Received 14 February 2017, Accepted 14 May 2017
Abstract
Introduction

The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has changed in the last two decades. There is a lack of information regarding incidence and severity of CDI, especially in the developing world.

Methods

This was a retrospective and observational study from four hospitals of three Mexican cities. Patients were diagnosed with CDI when presented with loose stools and had at least one of the following tests positive: toxins assay, real-time PCR, or an endoscopic image compatible with pseudomembranous colitis. CDI was classified according to international guidelines. Demographic and clinical data as well as information regarding total hospital admissions, total length-of-hospital stay, and other variables related to hospitalization were gathered from the epidemiology and administration departments of each hospital.

Results

A total of 2050 hospital beds were analyzed with 288,171 patients hospitalized accumulating 1,576,446 days of hospitalization during the study period. The average rate of CDI per 1000 hospital-days was lower than the rates reported in the US and Europe, although in 2015 CDI rates were almost persistently above the mean rate for the study period. More than half of PCR positive patients were ribotype 027.

Conclusion

Hospital rates of CDI are increasing in Mexican hospitals with a predominance of infections caused by ribotype 027.

Keywords
Clostridium difficile, Hospital acquired infections, Hospital diarrhea, Infection rates
Braz J Infect Dis 2017;21:530-4 - Vol. 21 Num.5 DOI: 10.1016/j.bjid.2017.05.007