The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Braz J Infect Dis 2017;21:424-32 - Vol. 21 Num.4 DOI: 10.1016/j.bjid.2017.01.011
Original article
Distribution of HBV subgenotypes in Ribeirão Preto, Southeastern Brazil: a region with history of intense Italian immigration
Silvana Gama Florencio Chacháa,b,, , Michele Soares Gomes-Gouvêac, Fernanda de Mello Maltac, Sandro da Costa Ferreirab, Márcia Guimarães Villanovab, Fernanda Fernandes Souzab, Andreza Correa Teixeirab, Afonso Dinis da Costa Passosd, João Renato Rebello Pinhoc,e, Ana de Lourdes Candolo Martinellib
a Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Medicina, São Carlos, SP, Brasil
b Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil
c Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina, Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Laboratório de Gastroenterologia e Hepatologia, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
d Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Medicina Social, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil
e Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
Received 25 November 2016, Accepted 09 January 2017
Abstract

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is distributed worldwide, with geographical variations regarding prevalence of the different genotypes. The aim of this study was to determine the HBV genotypes and subgenotypes circulating in Southeast Brazil and compare the genetic sequences found with HBV sequences previously described in the world. Sequences from 166 chronic HBV carriers were analyzed using the fragment constituted by 1306 base pairs comprising surface and polymerase regions of the HBV genome. The sequences obtained were submitted to phylogenetic analysis. HBV subgenotypes A1, A2, D1-D4, F2a, and F4 were found. HBV genotype D was the most frequent, found in 99 patients (58.4%). Within this group, subgenotype D3 was the most prevalent, in 73 patients (42.9%). HBV genotype A was identified in 58 (36%) patients, subgenotype A1, in 48 (29.8%) subjects. Genotype F was identified in 9 (5.4%). According to the phylogenetic analysis, the sequences found were grouped with sequences from Europe, Asia and Middle East (subgenotypes D1, D2, D3) and sequences from Latin America and Africa (subgenotype A1). HBV D3 grouped in different clusters inside D3 clade, several of them with sequences isolated in Italy. We also identified eight families whose relatives were infected with the same HBV subgenotype, most with high similarity between sequences. In conclusion, the distribution of the HBV sequences obtained interweaved with sequences from other continents, corresponding to regions from where many immigrants came to this region, in accordance to the hypothesis that the HBV detected over there were brought during the colonization times.

Keywords
Hepatitis B virus, Genotype, Phylogenetics, Intra-familial transmission
Braz J Infect Dis 2017;21:424-32 - Vol. 21 Num.4 DOI: 10.1016/j.bjid.2017.01.011